Language: Persian
Source: Ain-I-Akbari of circa 1590.


Jamdhar doulicaneh can literally be translated to "two-pointed deadly edge". The name appears in the Ain-I-Akbari of circa 1590, a book that chronicles the court of Emperor Akbar who reigned from 1556 to 1605.1

Jamdhar is used throughout the text for the Indian push daggers mostly known today as katar.


Three jamdhar in Akbar

Illustration from the Ain-I-Akbari showing all three jamdhar.

1. Jamdhar, "deadly edge". In this case, a curved katar is illustrated but the name was used for all types.

2. Jamdhar doulicaneh, "two-pointed deadly edge".

3. Jamdhar sehlicaneh, "three-pointed deadly edge".



From a Persian perspective, the word seems comprised of the words jam meaning "angel of death" and dahār meaning "edge of a sword".Looking at the Sanskrit, it could derive off jam (जम) "death" and dhára (धार)"a sharp edge" combined jamadhar (जमधर) or "death bringer".Doulicaneh is probably a hybrid word between the Persian do for "two" and Hindi likhaná from likhna (लिखना), "to write or scratch". Literally; "double scratcher".4


1. Ain-i-Akbari (آئینِ اکبری‎) or the "Administration of Akbar" describing the court of Akbar as it was around 1590.
2. Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani; Lexicon of Arms and Armor from Iran. Legat Verlag GmbH, Tübingen, 2010. Page 186.
3. Lord Egerton of Tatton; An Illustrated Handbook of Indian Arms. W.H. Allen, 1880. Page 22. And William Irvine; The Army of the Indian Moghuls, its organization and administration. Luzac & co, London. 1903. Page 86.
4. Ibid. Col. Yule's notes on page 23.

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