The following list is an overview of Chinese saber terminology as found in two 18th century Chinese dictionaries. The saber shown in the picture is of classical angular style or fangshi, the common type of saber mountings used in the period these dictionaries were written.

 

 

#

 

English

 

Chinese

 

Pinyin transliteration

 

  (Waist-worn) saber 腰刀 yāodāo
1 Grip 刀把 dāobǎ
2 Pommel 刀把頂束 dāobǎ dǐngshù
3 Ferrule 刀把束 dāobǎ shù
4 Guard 刀護手 dāo hūshǒu
5 Collarpiece 刀吞口 dāo tūnkǒu
6 Groove 刀槽 dāo cáo
7/8 Blade / edge 刀刃 dāo rèn
9 Back of blade 刀背 dāo bèi
10 Point 刀鋒 dāo fēng
11 Scabbard 刀鞘 dāoqiào
12 Scabbard mouthpiece 刀鞘把束 dāoqiào bàshù
13 Suspension bands 刀鞘中束 dāoqiào zhōngshù
14 Suspension bar 刀束樑 / 鞘上雙眼束 dāo shù liáng / qiàoshàng shuāngyǎn shù
15 Scabbard endpiece 刀鞘庇束 dāoqiào bìshù
   
 

 

 

  Saber tang 釘刀根鐵 dīngdāo gēntiě
  Saber scabbard fittings 刀鞘束 dāo qiào shù
  Saber lanyard 腰刀繫子 yāodāo xìzi
  Saber edge is collapsed 刀刃崩 dāo rèn bēng
  Saber edge has rolled up 刀刃卷 dāo rèn juǎn
  Saber surface is rusty 刀上鏥 dāo shàng xiù
  Saber surface is patterned 刀上斑 dāo shàng bān
  To chop with a saber 刀砍 dāo kǎn
  Strike with back of saber 刀背砍 dāo bèi kǎn
  To carry a saber 帶刀 dài dāo
  To pull the saber 拔刀 bá dāo
  To insert the saber 挿刀 chā/zhǎ dāo
  To shed the scabbard* 脫鞘 tuō qiào



*Chinese sabers were suspended from the belt by means of a belt-hook so the scabbard could be easily cast aside when the saber was drawn. This practice of "shedding the scabbard" is probably the reason why all saber forms in Chinese martial arts start with the saber already out of the scabbard.

Terms are taken from the:
Tongwen Guanghui Quanshu (同文廣彚全書) or "Enlarged and complete dictionary"
A Qing imperial dictionary in Chinese and Manchu of 1704, each entry double checked and approved by the Kangxi emperor.

Wuti Qingwen Jian (五體清文鑑)or "Five languages compendium"
A Qing imperial dictionary in Manchu, Mongolian, Uighur, Tibetan and Chinese of 1766. Published under the Qianlong emperor.


 

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